Scattering broadly refers to experimental techniques that use the interaction between radiation and matter to elucidate structure. In x-ray scattering, a collimated x-ray beam is directed at a sample of interest. The incident x-rays scatter off of all the atoms/particles in the sample. Because of the wavelike nature of x-rays (which are simply high-energy photons; i.e. electromagnetic rays), the scattered waves interfere with one another, leading to constructive interference at some angles, but destructive interference at other angles. The final end result is a pattern of scattered radiation (as a function of angle with respect to the direct beam) that encodes the microscopic, nanoscopic, and molecular-scale structure of the sample.